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DfD warehouse


Espoo, Finland

Design for Disassembly steel frame structure

Innovative solution

Ramboll / Kierrätyskeskus / GXN

Partners Involved


Building type

Steel frame, concrete footing

Structural material

Structural system

Rigid joint steel frame



Traditionally warehouses are designed and built for 50-year service life and they must be demolished when the building is not needed anymore. Warehouses are typically buildings, which are needed in a relatively short period and in a certain location. Therefore, structures of warehouse are designed according to DfD principles in this demonstration. This will contribute to prolongation of the building’s components lifetime, with the goal to minimize consumption of virgin resources.

The baseline to which the developed DfD structure is compared, is a typical non-movable warehouse structure. The goal is enable circulation of all structural elements including foundations.

Demonstrated innovation

The demonstration developed a DfD warehouse where 99,6 % of mass is reusable. At the same time the designed DfD warehouse is convertible by adding or removing frameworks, or narrower leaving part of it out.

Activities done

  • Design guideline for DfD structures has been written during the design process

  • Baseline structure and DfD warehouse are modelled with BIM

  • Several cases are studied for finding the best combination for the space use, frame, footings and transportation of the components.

  • LCA and LCC calculations has been conducted for baseline and DfD warehouse

  • Baseline structure for the demo building is done. Structural components are modelled with BIM.

  • Demonstration has been presented in Vantaa UDMF


Demonstrated impacts

Probably the most important impact was that almost 100 % of structures and footings are reusable and in the end of life all material can either reused or recycled. LCA calculations show that it is more environmentally friendly to use DfD warehouse than several traditional warehouses. Likewise, LCC studies indicates significant saving already after one redevelopment cycle utilising the DfD of the warehouse.

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